In ancient time the most important examinations were spoken, not written. In the schools of ancient Greece and Rome, testing usually consisted of saying poetry aloud or giving speeches.
In the European universities of the Middle Ages, students who were working for advanced degrees had to discuss questions in their field of study with people who had made a special study of the subject. This custom exists today as part of the process of testing candidates for the doctor's degree.
Generally, however, modern examinations are written. The written examination, where all students are tested on the same questions, was probably not known until the nineteenth century. Perhaps it came into existence with the great increase in population and the development of modern industry. A room full of candidates for a state examination, timed exactly by electric clocks and carefully watched over by managers, resembles a group of workers at an automobile factory. Certainly, during examinations teachers and students are expected to act like machines.
1、In the Middle Ages students never wrote exams.
2、The main idea of paragraph 3 is that workers now take examinations.
3、The word "degree" in paragraph 2 means academic title.
4、Modern examinations must have developed before the Middle Ages.
5、It may be concluded that testing has changed since the Middle Ages.
A man once had a dream about the Black Forest in Germany. In his dream he was walking in the forest when two men ran out and tried to throw him to the ground. He ran off as fast as he could, but they followed him. He reached a place where he saw two roads in front of him, one to the right and the other to the left. Which road should he take? He heard the two men go to the right, and he did so. He ran on and soon came to a small hotel. He was received there kindly and given a room, and he was saved from the two men. That was the dream.
Twenty years later he was really in the Black Forest and, as happened in the dream long ago, two men ran out and tried to throw him down. He ran off, and came to a place with two roads, like in the dream. He remembered the dream and took the road to the right. He soon reached a small hotel, was taken in, and so was safe. His dream of twenty years before had saved his life.
6、The Black Forest is a place in Germany.
7、When he was walking in the forest, two men ran after him.
8、Finally he came to another road.
9、It was someone else that saved the man's life 20 years later.
10、The story tells us that a dream may come true.
Young people have a new shape these days. They are about 20 pounds heavier than people of their age were 60 years ago. They are about four inches taller, too. These facts come from J. M. Tanner, a professor in England.
J. M. Tanner has been measuring people from all over the world for a long time. He has also studied people's growth records of the past 100 years.
"Children today are bigger than ever before," he says. "Today's nine-year-olds look like eleven-year-olds looked back in 1900."
According to Tanner, adults are also taller than ever before.
But the biggest change can be seen in young people. That's because boys used to keep on growing until they reached age 26. But today they stop growing at 18 or 19. Most girls stop growing even earlier. So today's teenagers are bigger than 26-year-olds were 60 years ago.
What is causing this change? Professor Tanner says it's proper food. Good food alone cannot make you grow beyond your natural limits. Your final height is partly caused by the height of your parents and grandparents. But eating proper food can help you reach your final height, and reach it early in life.
Will people keep on getting bigger? Will we have a race of giants? No - at least not if the US is an example. Tanner says that we have eaten proper food for years, and our growth rate has already begun to level off.
11、This article talks mainly about the change of teenagers' shape.
12、A nine-year-old child today is older than a child of the same age a century ago.
13、About 60 years ago, boys stopped growing at 26.
14、According to Professor Tanner, natural limits have caused the change in height difference between young people now and those of 60 years ago.
15、The word "giants" in the text probably means short people.